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Fluid Mosaic Structure Cells are enclosed by a double-layered fluid membrane consisting of a mosaic of components which include proteins, glycoproteins, glycolipids, phospholipids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. The phospholipid heads are polar, allowing them to orient themselves towards the watery cytoplasm and extracellular space. The hydrophobic tails orient towards each other. Proteins […]

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Proteins can be separated based on their isoelectric point and molecular weight using electrophoresis. This allows us to observe and compare structural and functional differences in proteins, and enables further analysis of specific proteins we may want to study. Separation by Isoelectric Point Separation by isoelectric point is called isoelectric focusing. In this technique, samples […]

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Regulation of energy metabolism can occur at the gene level, where enzymes needed for energy metabolic pathways are either transcribed, or their transcription inhibited. A well-studied example is the Lac Operon which can be seen in E. coli bacteria. The Lac Operon is characterized by an operator which is essentially an on/off switch that controls […]

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