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Gram staining is a method developed by the Danish Scientist Hans Christian Gram in 1884 to distinguish two types of bacteria based on the structure of their cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria stain purple because of its thick peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall. Gram-negative bacteria will stain pink due to having a very thin peptidoglycan […]

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Microbial analysis is used in the food industry to determine the microbial content of foods and as a verification, measurement to determine the adequacy of cleaning and sanitation. Common tests that you will encounter include the following. Aerobic Plate Count (APC): This test is also called aerobic colony count, standard plate count (SPC) and total […]

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Objective: To observe the effect of pH on catalase enzyme in potato protein extract        Background: Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct of several metabolic reactions in living cells. If allowed to accumulate it can cause oxidative damage. Therefore, it is constantly removed by catalase which decomposes it to water and oxygen. Catalase is found in […]

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Objectives: a) to quantify proteins in an unknown concentration of egg albumin (egg white) solution, and (b) to separate casein protein from milk     Background: In the first part of this lab, the Biuret method will be used to identify and quantify proteins in an unknown concentration of egg albumin solution. Proteins are identified in […]

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Objectives: To identify which carbohydrates contain reducing sugars Background: Some sugars have a free aldehyde or ketone group which makes them capable of acting as a reducing agent. We call these sugars reducing sugars. They play an important role in developing food colors and flavors during processing. Reducing sugars produce a brick-red color when heated […]

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Objectives: To determine the effect of substrate on yeast fermentation rate Background: Products of carbohydrates fermentation include carbon dioxide and ethanol. The rate of fermentation will be affected by how readily yeast is able to utilize substrates for energy. In this lab, you will observe differences in fermentation rates based on the type of substrate […]

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