Eggs possess various functional properties that make them useful in various food formulations. For example, eggs act as an emulsifier, preventing oil and water from separating in products like ice-cream, mayonnaise, and cakes. In cakes, eggs help to retain moisture, add color and flavor, binds ingredients together, and create air cells that can later expand and increase cake volume. Therefore, eggs are like a “super ingredient”. Replacing it typically requires the use of several additives to compensate for the loss of functionality. In this lab, you will be making a normal vanilla cake containing eggs and another that is eggless. In order to compensate for the lack of egg in the eggless cake, the following additional ingredients will be needed. 

  1. Skimmed milk powder: To improve moisture retention, structure, and to support Maillard reaction (for color and flavor) 
  2. Additional baking powder: To assist in aeration  
  3. Additional milk: To replace moisture that the eggs would have provided 
  4. Tofu: Has natural lecithin to support emulsification of fat 
  5. Ground flaxseed: To improve water-binding capacity (moisture retention) and firmness  

Recipe for Vanilla Cake With Egg

Materials

  1. 1.5 sticks salted butter, at room temperature, plus enough to butter baking pans
  2. 3 cups all-purpose flour
  3. 1 tablespoon baking powder
  4. 1/8 teaspoon salt
  5. 1 1/4 cups white granulated sugar
  6. 4 large eggs, at room temperature
  7. 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
  8. 1 1/2 cups whole milk

Procedure

  1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F
  2. Butter two 9-inch-round cake pans (or use another pan size you have available)
  3. Combine 3 cups flour, the baking powder, and salt in a bowl
  4. Combine eggs and vanilla in another bowl or cup
  5. In a third bowl (large), mix butter and sugar at high speed using an electric cake hand mixer until the two ingredients are fully combined. Note: It will take more work but you can do this by hand using a wooden mixing spoon if you don’t have a cake mixer 
  6. Gradually add eggs, scraping down the sides of the bowl with a spatula as needed, while continuing to mix at high speed
  7. Reduce the speed to medium and gradually add the flour mixture, alternating with the milk until smooth
  8. Fill pans with batter. Note: Make sure to give enough room for the cake to rise
  9. Set aside the pans and start on the eggless recipe so that you can put both in the oven at the same time
  10. Bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit until the cakes are lightly golden on top and a toothpick or knife inserted into the middle comes out clean
  11. Remove pans and cool 

Recipe for Eggless Vanilla Cake

Materials 

  1. 1.5 sticks salted butter, at room temperature, plus enough to butter baking pans
  2. 3 cups all-purpose flour
  3. 2 tablespoon baking powder
  4. 1/8 teaspoon salt
  5. 1 1/4 cups white granulated sugar
  6. 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
  7. 2 1/2 cups whole milk
  8. 1 tablespoon skimmed milk powder
  9. 1 tablespoon ground flaxseed
  10. 1/2 cup crushed/pulped tofu

Procedure 

  1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit
  2. Butter two 9-inch-round cake pans (or use another pan size you have available)
  3. Combine 3 cups flour, the baking powder and salt in a bowl
  4. Combine 1/2 cup whole milk, tofu, skimmed milk powder, flax, and vanilla in another bowl or cup
  5. In a third bowl (large), mix butter and sugar at high speed using an electric cake hand mixer until the two ingredients are fully combined. Note: It will take more work but you can do this by hand using a wooden mixing spoon if you don’t have a cake mixer 
  6. Gradually add contents in step 4 above, scraping down the sides of the bowl with a spatula as needed, while continuing to mix at high speed
  7. Reduce the speed to medium and gradually add the flour mixture, alternating with the remaining milk until smooth
  8. Fill pans with batter. Note: Make sure to give enough room for the cake to rise
  9. Bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit until the cakes are lightly golden on top and a toothpick or knife inserted into the middle comes out clean
  10. Remove pans and cool 

Assessment 

After cooling, observe the cake for differences in color, appearance, height, moistness, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall likeness. Have fun by asking members of your family to taste samples and tell you which one they think is eggless and which is not. By the way, remember that this product contains allergens (wheat, milk, egg, and soy) so check to ensure that your tasters are not allergic to any of them before they taste.  

Courtney Simons
Administrator
Courtney Simons is a food science professor. He holds a BS degree in food science and a Ph.D. in cereal science from North Dakota State University.
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