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The amino group, carboxylic acid group, and side chain of an amino acid can be protonated (accept hydrogen) or deprotonated (release hydrogen) depending on the pH of the solution that the amino acid is in. Use the following relationship between pH and pKa to help you predict whether protonation or deprotonation will take place. Another […]

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The relationship between velocity and the substrate concentration is illustrated by an asymptotic curve. The equation representing this curve is called the Michaelis-Menten equation. Where V0 = initial velocity, and [S] = concentration of substrate. In the asymptotic curve, the line approaches but never reaches Vmax. Therefore, it is difficult to calculate. Hence, for more […]

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Michaelis-Menten plots can be used to identify the type of enzyme inhibition that is present. As you should remember, there are three main types of enzyme inhibition i.e., competitive, uncompetitive and noncompetitive. Competitive Inhibition In competitive inhibition, the inhibitor can be overcome by increasing the substrate concentration. Hence maximum velocity is reached. However, notice that […]

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Many biological reactions are catalyzed by enzymes. As you should remember, enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of biochemical reactions. However, some reactions may not be needed at a certain time. Hence it may be necessary to slow them down or prevent them all together. This is achieved using molecules called inhibitors. There […]

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While enzymes are essential to metabolic function they are not all needed at the same time, in the same amounts nor in the same cell. Therefore biological systems must regulate them so that they are available when and where they are needed. Several mechanisms are responsible for enzymatic activity. Feedback Inhibition Enzymes may be controlled […]

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